Who Owns Liv Golf: An In-Depth Analysis

Financial Backing: The Key Investors Behind LIV Golf

The Public Investment Fund (PIF) of Saudi Arabia is the primary financial backer of LIV Golf, committing an estimated $2 billion in investment funds. This aligns with Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's Vision 2030 plan to transform Saudi Arabia's economy and reduce its dependence on oil.

In addition to the PIF, LIV Golf has received funding from high net worth individuals and family offices from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The exact details of these investors remain undisclosed, leading to criticism regarding the league's lack of financial transparency.

  • Recent media reports suggest some individual investments in LIV Golf are as high as $100 million. This demonstrates remarkable confidence in LIV Golf's business model and growth potential.
  • There is speculation that leaders of Saudi-owned companies like Aramco and SABIC have made personal investments into LIV Golf based on close ties with PIF leadership.
  • LIV Golf's total current funding likely falls in the range of $3-4 billion based on costs of player contracts, event operations, marketing and R&D. This surpasses all other start-up golf leagues in history.
  • Securing long-term investors and broadcast partners will be key to LIV Golf establishing financial sustainability and reducing reliance on Saudi funding.

Organizational Structure: Understanding LIV Golf's Leadership and Management

LIV Golf Investments is the parent entity that oversees operations and strategic direction of the breakaway league. Australian golf legend Greg Norman serves as CEO, driving the vision and brand positioning of LIV Golf centered on innovation.

Day-to-day management decisions involve a small executive team covering business, marketing and golf operations. This streamlined structure allows for agility in decision-making compared to other golf institutions.

  • Majed Al-Sorour, CEO of Saudi Golf Federation, acts as LIV Golf's managing director and maintains close ties with the PIF regarding investment decisions.
  • Former TaylorMade CEO Mark King was recently hired as LIV's chief business officer to pursue expansion and strategic partnerships.
  • Consultants from Boston Consulting Group and McKinsey worked on LIV Golf's launch and advise on developing an optimal portfolio of global event locations.
  • LIV Golf's events team is now over 100 people strong as on-site operations have rapidly scaled over the past year across Asia, Europe and North America.

Strategic Partnerships and Sponsorships: The Corporate Support of LIV Golf

LIV Golf's two most notable business alliances have been with the Asian Tour to host joint events and the MENA Tour to serve as a potential pathway for young amateurs. Both partnerships lack details around financial commitments or shared decision-making.

The league also signed a multi-year deal with leading production company IMG to create content and manage global broadcast distribution. This deal was reportedly valued around $300 million over 5 years.

  • Progress securing title sponsors and broadcast rights has been slower than expected according to industry analysts, limiting revenue streams.
  • Partnerships with equipment and apparel brands like Nike, Adidas and TaylorMade would provide increased visibility, but negotiations stalled over concerns around the Saudi backing.
  • Regional partnerships in Asia and the Middle East show most promise currently based on LIV Golf's goals of growing those markets and the PIF's business interests.
  • Private golf technology firms have shown strong interest in aligning with LIV Golf to demonstrate proof-of-concepts for innovations in event operations, media and fan engagement.

Strategic Partnerships and Sponsorships: The Corporate Support of LIV Golf

The Role of the Public Investment Fund: Saudi Arabia's Influence in LIV Golf

The PIF's vision for return on investment from LIV Golf centers on three pillars - profitability from event operations, increased Saudi golf tourism, and improved nation brand perception.

With $5 billion allocated from the PIF towards golf development in Saudi Arabia over the next decade, LIV Golf serves as a vehicle for attracting foreign player and fan interest. This includes LIV team events slated for Saudi Arabia and a planned 'New Era Invitational' featuring juniors.

  • Leveraging Saudi Arabia's hosting of 2027 Asian Winter Games to integrate LIV Golf programming and infrastructure development in Neom mega-city project.
  • PIF governor Yasir Al-Rumayyan has involvement in LIV Golf strategic planning based on his background attracting other high-profile western sports investments into Saudi Arabia.
  • Critics argue the Saudi regime has too much influence over LIV Golf's leadership based on vague structure of the league's board of directors and investors linked to PIF ecosystem.
  • Establishment of a Saudi-owned golf league was discussed for over 5 years before LIV Golf came to fruition, indicating significant priority within the Kingdom's global sports strategy.

LIV Golf's Impact on the Professional Golf Landscape

LIV Golf's disruptive market entry has accelerated polarization on the professional golf scene. Defections of high-profile players to LIV Golf have prompted suspensions and legal threats from established tours like the PGA Tour.

This combative dynamic between the upstart league and golf's status quo will likely require resolution via channels like the Court of Arbitration for Sport. Areas for potential compromise could include special releases for major championships or a split season allowing participation in both LIV and PGA events.

  • Talent migration has exposed cracks in the structure of professional golf, revealing a power imbalance between tours and players in terms of rights and agency.
  • Women's tours feel increased pressure to boost purses and appeal to retain top ranked players from pivoting focus towards opportunities in LIV Golf or a potential women's version of the league.
  • Debate continues on how LIV Golf may impact pathways for young professional golfers, with promise of increased financial security but less developmental opportunities early in careers.

LIV Golf's Impact on the Professional Golf Landscape

Player Perspectives: The Attraction and Hesitation Amongst Professional Golfers

The willingness of players to accept LIV Golf contracts reflects personal values and career aspirations as much business considerations. Players like Dustin Johnson and Sergio Garcia prioritized guaranteed earnings from LIV after achieving Hall-of-Fame careers.

Younger talents such as Matthew Wolff and Eugenio Lopez-Chacarra suggest belief in LIV Golf as integral to golf's growth. Players still finding their footing like Sadom Kaewkanjana cite team camaraderie and removes barriers of a traditionally individual sport.

  • Traditionally less visible players have gained significantly more exposure through LIV Golf's centrifugal fan engagement approaches compared to being lost in the mix on the PGA Tour.
  • Several players turned down more lucrative LIV offers due to loyalty to sponsors or circuits that invested in their developmental years like the Korn Ferry Tour.
  • Concerns around ineligibility for Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup play has given many European and International players reason to pause before jumping to LIV Golf.
  • Top-ranked players in their prime like Jon Rahm, Scottie Scheffler and Will Zalatoris have been reluctant to risk legacy and consistency for LIV's financial windfall.

How LIV Golf is Received Worldwide

Response to LIV Golf across global markets has varied based on pre-existing perceptions of Saudi geopolitical influence and appraisal of the league's projected development impact.

Developing golf regions in South America, Africa and India look most favorably on LIV Golf as a catalyst for economic growth. In contrast, more established golf countries such as Australia and Scotland remain apprehensive or outright opposed.

  • Human rights groups pressure sponsors and media partners to boycott LIV Golf events, although protests have been relatively small-scale to date.
  • Golf fans less invested in tradition have shown great appetite for LIV Golf's team concept and view it as overdue innovation for the sport.
  • Support for LIV Golf could shift as concrete details around event scheduling, broadcast plans, and access to majors solidify in coming years.
  • Continued polarizing rhetoric between LIV Golf and leaders of the professional game risks fragmenting golf's global participant and fan community.


In the ongoing debate around "who owns LIV golf", examining the motivations and influence behind the league's key decision-makers provides perspective. While LIV Golf has already made an indelible, disruptive mark on professional golf, its staying power remains uncertain. With lucrative financial backing secured but reputational challenges still in flux, LIV Golf's future may come down to striking an uneasy truce with the sport's established ecosystem.